The perpetuation of the migrant-in-the-family care model in Italy
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|Authors:||Seiffarth, Marlene||Supervisor:||Gottschall, Karin
|1. Expert:||Gottschall, Karin||Experts:||Rothgang, Heinz
When migrants replace family members as integral providers of long-term care, we speak of the migrant-in-the-family model, of which Italy continues to be the main representative due to the longstanding relevance and significant numbers of migrants in care work in the country. This dissertation analyzes the development of this care model since the 1990s and its implications for regulating working conditions of migrant care workers (MCWs) in Italy who primarily come from Eastern Europe. This analysis uses secondary literature, not publicly available statistics and 30 expert interviews. Previous literature presumed the migrant-in-the-family model to be characterized by low levels of institutionalization, high levels of informality, limited representation, and inadequate working conditions. This dissertation shows how actions and non-actions of the state, families, and non-governmental actors have perpetuated the migrant-in-the-family model, also by producing constant – even if incremental – changes towards more formal employment and better working conditions. While there have been no national-level attempts at reforming the sector, this research demonstrates that regional governments have leeway to bring about change regarding family-employers’ behaviors and working conditions for MCWs. However, without support and incentives, most families engage in do-it-yourself welfare to arrange this type of home-based eldercare provision via personal recruitment strategies, payment off the books and no registration with social security. The actors who have most effectively intervened in this informal mode of employment and institutionalized the sector are employers’ associations and trade unions: They engage in collective bargaining and provide conducive environments for formalization as they support family-employers and MCWs with administrative and legal issues, as well as offering training. Presumptions of the impossibility of organizing this sector and regulating employment in private households have been revoked by this research. Notwithstanding the social partners’ efforts and the resulting improvements, the migrant-in-the-family model remains fragile and ultimately unsustainable given its reliance on global inequalities and its reproduction of intersecting inequalities for MCWs.
|Keywords:||long-term care; migrants; Italy; informal markets; formalization||Issue Date:||21-Mar-2023||Type:||Dissertation||DOI:||10.26092/elib/2200||URN:||urn:nbn:de:gbv:46-elib68730||Institution:||Universität Bremen||Faculty:||Fachbereich 08: Sozialwissenschaften (FB 08)|
|Appears in Collections:||Dissertationen|
checked on May 30, 2023
checked on May 30, 2023
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