From Structure to Spectra : Tight-Binding Theory of InGaAs Quantum Dots
|Other Titles:||Von Struktur zu Spektren : Tight-Binding Theorie von InGaAs Quantenpunkten||Authors:||Goldmann, Elias||Supervisor:||Jahnke, Frank||1. Expert:||Jahnke, Frank||2. Expert:||Czycholl, Gerd||Abstract:||
Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots have raised considerable interest in the last decades due to a multitude of possible applications ranging from carrier storage to light emitters, lasers and future quantum communication devices. Quantum dots offer unique electronic and photonic properties due to the three-dimensional confinement of charge carriers and the coupling to a quasi-continuum of wetting layer and barrier states. In this work we investigate the electronic structure of InGaAs quantum dots embedded in GaAs, considering realistic quantum dot geometries and Indium concentrations. We utilize a next-neighbour sp3s tight-binding model for the calculation of electronic single-particle energies and wave functions bound in the nanostructure and account for strain arising from lattice mismatch of the constituent materials atomistically. With the calculated single-particle wave functions we derive Coulomb matrix elements and include them into a configuration interaction treatment, yielding many-particle states and energies of the interacting many-carrier system. Also from the tight-binding single-particle wave functions we derive dipole transition strengths to obtain optical quantum dot emission and absorption spectra with Fermi s golden rule. Excitonic fine-structure splittings are obtained, which play an important role for future quantum cryptography and quantum communication devices for entanglement swapping or quantum repeating. For light emission suited for long-range quantum-crypted fiber communication InAs quantum dots are embedded in an InGaAs strain-reducing layer, shifting the emission wavelength into telecom low-absorption windows. We investigate the influence of the strain-reducing layer Indium concentration on the excitonic finestructure splitting. The fine-structure splitting is found to saturate and, in some cases, even reduce with strain-reducing layer Indium concentration, a result being counterintuitively. Our result demonstrates the applicability of InGaAs quantum dots for quantum telecommunication at the desired telecom wavelengths, offering good growth controllability. For the application in lasers, quantum based active media are known to offer superior properties to common quantum well lasers such as low threshold currents or temperature stability. For device design, the knowledge about the saturation behaviour of optical gain with excitation density is of major importance. In the present work we combine quantum-kinetic models for the calculation of the optical gain of quantum dot active media with our atomistic tight-binding model for the calculation of single-particle energies and wave functions. We investigate the interplay between structural properties of the quantum dots and many-body effects in the optical gain spectra and identify different regimes of saturation behaviour. Either phase-space filling dominates the excitation dependence of the optical gain, leading to saturation, or excitation-induced dephasing dominates the excitation dependence of the optical gain, resulting in a negative differential gain.
|Keywords:||Tight-Binding, Quantum Dots, Fine-Structure Splitting, Entanglement, InGaAs, III-V, Optical Gain||Issue Date:||23-Jul-2014||URN:||urn:nbn:de:gbv:46-00103899-12||Institution:||Universität Bremen||Faculty:||FB1 Physik/Elektrotechnik|
|Appears in Collections:||Dissertationen|
checked on Sep 20, 2020
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