Gamma spectrometry for chronology of recent sediments
|Other Titles:||Datierung rezenter Sedimente mit gamma-spektrometrischen Methoden||Authors:||Pittauerová, Daniela||Supervisor:||Fischer, Helmut||1. Expert:||Fischer, Helmut||2. Expert:||Zolitschka, Bernd||Abstract:||
This thesis deals with several aspects of gamma spectrometric analysis of natural and artificial isotopes in sediments and their use as tracers for qualification and quantification of accumulation and mixing processes in different aquatic environments. Sediment cores from three distinct areas including terrigenous sediments deposited on the continental slope off NW Africa, deep sea sediments off Sumba Island and five stations from the Gulf of Eilat in the Red Sea area were measured and interpreted within this dissertation. The main concern in gamma spectrometry of voluminous environmental samples is a reliable efficiency calibration. This is specially relevant for the analysis of low energy gamma emitters (<100 keV). 210Pb, an important isotopic tracer to cover the period of the last century, is one of them. Within this work mathematical efficiency calibration was applied using a commercial software package. A series of validation tests was performed and evaluated for point and voluminous samples. When using 210Pb as a tracer it is necessary to determine its excess portion, which is not supported by ingrowth from the parent nuclide 226Ra. Its analysis is mostly performed via short lived daughter isotopes that follow after the intermediate gaseous member 222Rn. Preventing the escape of radon from the sample is a critical step before analysis due to a negative effect of supported 210Pb underestimation on the chronology, which was also documented in this thesis. Time series registering ingrowth of 214Pb and 214Bi towards radioactive equilibrium with 226Ra in different containers were evaluated for analyses of 226Ra. Direct analyses of 226Ra was compared to its detection via daughter products. A method for aligning parallel radionuclide depth profiles was described and applied successfully in two case studies from the continental slope off NW Africa and off Sumba Island, Indonesia. This is primarily important when combined profiles obtained from short multicorer cores and long gravity cores (with topmost parts not being preserved) need to be studied. Another useful strategy involving summing up spectra was suggested for the Indonesian sediments, which lead to reducing detection limits and allowed quantifying artificial radionuclides activity concentrations, ratios and inventories. Finally, an approach of using 232Th series additionally to 210Pb and 137Cs gamma emitters for interpretation of depth profiles in order to quantify accumulation and mixing rates was applied within a study of phosphorous contribution to eutrophication in the Gulf of Eilat. The three upper mentioned approaches lead to easier and more complete interpretation of radionuclide data and their practical use within interdisciplinary studies of climate of the past and environmental pollution.
|Keywords:||Sediment chronology, Gamma spectrometry, Excess 210Pb, Supported 210Pb, Excess 228Th, 137Cs, 241Am||Issue Date:||17-Dec-2013||URN:||urn:nbn:de:gbv:46-00103560-11||Institution:||Universität Bremen||Faculty:||FB1 Physik/Elektrotechnik|
|Appears in Collections:||Dissertationen|
checked on Sep 22, 2020
checked on Sep 22, 2020
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