Poverty in small-scale fishing communities in Bangladesh: Contexts and responses
|Other Titles:||Armut in Gemeinschaften von Kleinfischern in Bangladesch: Kontexte und Reaktionen||Authors:||Islam, Mohammad Mahmudul||Supervisor:||Flitner, Michael||1. Expert:||Flitner, Michael||2. Expert:||Jentoft, Svein||Abstract:||
This thesis explores the causes of poverty and its manifestation in coastal small-scale fisheries in Bangladesh, the ways in which fishers cope with or overcome poverty, and possible measures supporting poor fishers to escape poverty. In a first approach towards exploring the poverty context, Paper I situates poverty in small-scale fisheries within a wider vulnerability analysis. The paper portrays the livelihoods of small-scale fishers in Bangladesh as being threatened by different factors, such as a rapidly changing and fragile resources base, lack of physical and subjective safety and security, exploitative labour and financial relationships, and social and political exclusion. Consequently, the majority of small-scale fishers in Bangladesh live on the margin of existence, where they are extremely vulnerable to shocks such as environmental disasters. Without any effective buffer against crises, as Paper II identifies, recurring shocks and ongoing risk exposure are major factors pushing fishers into poverty. As an example, Paper III analyzes the situation of nomad fishers who have been moved from their land and who lead a vulnerable mobile life in search of livelihoods on water. Nonetheless, the fishers constantly attempt to get out of their disadvantaged situation, and in this process they employ a combination of different livelihood strategies, such as income diversification and patron-client relationships. Of the different livelihood strategies, migration is of particular importance: Paper IV shows that migration contributes to the emergence of translocal livelihoods, in which mobility serves not only as a way to escape poverty and vulnerability but also to enhance their capacities and / or to explore new opportunities. Finally, this thesis offers a number of suggestions including both protection and promotion components. To prevent a downward spiral into poverty, several buffers need to be created, for example reducing dependency on fisheries by creating job opportunities in non-fishing occupations. Intervention from the state is also required to minimize risks and free individuals from their lack of freedom, which is rooted in both natural and anthropogenic causes (Paper V). To make their agency effective and to increase the overall capacity and well-being of the communities, an enhanced access to land and education facilities and other socio-economic capitals could lead to an empowerment of poor fishing households and facilitate the participation in the local economic and political process. The study particularly highlights that the contribution of women in income generation and family decision making plays a positive role in accumulation of assets - a way out of poverty for small-scale fishers in Bangladesh.
|Keywords:||Small-scale fisheries, Poverty, Vulnerability, Bangladesh, Small-scale fishing communities, Nomad fishers, Translocal livelihoods, Migration||Issue Date:||21-Sep-2012||URN:||urn:nbn:de:gbv:46-00102866-18||Institution:||Universität Bremen||Faculty:||FB8 Sozialwissenschaften|
|Appears in Collections:||Dissertationen|
checked on Sep 21, 2020
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