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**Qualitative Spatial Reasoning about Relative Orientation --- A Question of Consistency ---**

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00102632-1.pdf | 4.24 MB | Adobe PDF | View/Open |

Other Titles: | Qualitativ räumliche Schussfolgerung basierend auf relativer Orientierung --- Eine Frage der Konsistenz --- |

Authors: | Luecke, Dominik |

Supervisor: | Mossakowski, Till |

1. Expert: | Mossakowski, Till |

2. Expert: | Moratz, Reinhard |

Abstract: | Abstract. After the emergence of Allen s Interval Algebra Qualitative Spatial Reasoning has evolved into a fruitful field of research in artificial intelligence with possible applications in geographic information systems (GIS) and robot navigation Qualitative Spatial Reasoning abstracts from the detailed metric description of space using rich mathematical theories and restricts its language to a finite, often rather small, set of relations that fulfill certain properties. This approach is often deemed to be cognitively adequate . A major question in qualitative spatial reasoning is whether a description of a spatial situation given as a constraint network is consistent. The problem becomes a hard one since the domain of space (often R2 ) is infinite. In contrast many of the interesting problems for constraint satisfaction have a finite domain on which backtracking methods can be used. But because of the infinity of its domains these methods are generally not applicable to Qualitative Spatial Reasoning. Anyhow the method of path consistency or rather its generalization algebraic closure turned out to be helpful to a certain degree for many qualitative spatial calculi. The problem regarding this method is that it depends on the existence of a composition table, and calculating this table is not an easy task. For example the dipole calculus (operating on oriented dipoles) DRAf has 72 base relations and binary composition, hence its composition table has 5184 entries. Finding all these entries by hand is a hard, long and error-prone task. Finding them using a computer is also not easy, since the semantics of DRAf in the Euclidean Plane, its natural domain, rely on non-linear inequalities. This is not a special problem of the DRAf calculus. In fact, all calculi dealing with relative orientation share the property of having semantics based on non-linear inequalities in the Euclidean plane. This not only makes it hard to find a composition table, it also makes it particularly hard to decide consistency for these calculi. As shown in [79] algebraic closure is always just an approximation to consistency for these calculi, but it is the only method that works fast. Methods like Gröbner reasoning can decide consistency for these calculi but only for small constraint networks. Still finding a composition table for DRAf is a fruitful task, since we can use it analyze the properties of composition based reasoning for such a calculus and it is a starting point for the investigation of the quality of the approximation of consistency for this calculus. We utilize a new approach for calculating the composition table for DRAf using condensed semantics, i.e. the domain of the calculus is compressed in such a way that only finitely many possible configurations need to be investigated. In fact, only the configurations need to be investigated that turn out to represent special characteristics for the placement of three lines in the plane. This method turns out to be highly efficient for calculating the composition table of the calculus. Another method of obtaining a composition table is borrowing it via a suitable morphism. Hence, we investigate morphisms between qualitative spatial calculi. Having the composition table is not the end but rather the beginning of the problem. With that table we can compute algebraically closed refinements of constraint networks, but how meaningful is this process? We know that all constraint networks for which such a refinement does not exist are inconsistent, but what about the rest? In fact, they may be consistent or not. If they are all consistent, then we can be happy, since algebraic closure would decide consistency for the calculus at hand. We investigate LR, DRAf and DRAfp and show that for all these calculi algebraic closure does not decide consistency. In fact, for the LR calculus algebraic closure is an extremely bad approximation of consistency. For this calculus we introduce a new method for the approximation of consistency based on triangles, that performs far better than algebraic closure. A major weak spot of the field of Qualitative Spatial Reasoning is the area of applications. It is hard to refute the accusation of qualitative spatial calculi having only few applications so far. As a step into the direction of scrutinizing the applicability of these calculi, we examine the performance of DRA and OPRA in the issue of describing and navigating street networks based on local observations. Especially for OPRA we investigate a factorization of the base relations that is deemed cognitively adequate . Whenever possible we use real-world data in these investigations obtained from OpenStreetMap. |

Keywords: | Qualitative Spatial Reasoning; Consistency; Relation Algebras |

Issue Date: | 5-Jun-2012 |

URN: | urn:nbn:de:gbv:46-00102632-12 |

Institution: | Universität Bremen |

Faculty: | FB3 Mathematik/Informatik |

Appears in Collections: | Dissertationen |

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