Einfluss arktischer Süßwasserquellen auf die Zirkulation im Nordmeer und im Nordatlantik in einem prognostischen Ozean-Meereis-Modell
|Other Titles:||Influence of Arctic Freshwater Sources on the Circulation in the Arctic Mediterranean and the North Atlantic in a Prognostic Ocean/Sea-Ice Model||Authors:||Prange, Matthias||Supervisor:||Olbers, Dirk||1. Expert:||Olbers, Dirk||Experts:||Schulz, Michael||Abstract:||
The thesis documents the design and development of a three-dimensional prognostic ocean/sea-ice model of the Arctic Mediterranean and the North Atlantic. The model has been set up on the basis of the z-coordinate ocean model MOM 2 coupled to a dynamic/thermodynamic sea-ice model with viscous-plastic rheology. Adding arctic freshwater sources step by step leads to a progressive improvement of the coupled model, and allows to analyse the sensitivity of the ocean/sea-ice system with respect to freshwater forcing. The results reveal that freshwater plays a major role in Arctic Ocean dynamics. In particular, the path of the Transpolar Drift and the strength of the East Greenland Current in the western Fram Strait are strongly influenced by the input of freshwater. Thus, freshwater favours the exchange of water masses between the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean. Moreover, freshwater input controls vertical oceanic heat fluxes into the ice by forming a stable density stratification. The model requires a total freshwater input of approx. 6800 km^3/yr to the Arctic Ocean in order to maintain a realistic hydrography. More than 40% of this freshwater leaves the Arctic Ocean as sea-ice through Fram Strait. The sum of liquid freshwater exports through Fram Strait and the Canadian Arctic Archipelago is of similar magnitude (c. 1500 km^3/yr through each passage). Taking the volume input of surface freshwater fluxes into account by applying an open surface, the model presented here is superior to other models of the Arctic Mediterranean, which are driven by virtual salinity fluxes. Experiments with different salinity/freshwater flux boundary conditions reveal the shortcomings of salinity-flux formulations. It is concluded that other prognostic models of the Arctic Ocean can be improved substantially by implementing an open surface.
|Keywords:||Arctic Ocean; Nordic Seas; North Atlantic; Bering Strait; Fram Strait; ocean modelling; sea-ice modelling; ocean dynamics; hydrology||Issue Date:||25-Jul-2003||Type:||Dissertation||URN:||urn:nbn:de:gbv:46-diss000006238||Institution:||Universität Bremen||Faculty:||FB1 Physik/Elektrotechnik|
|Appears in Collections:||Dissertationen|
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