Insights into the biology of Candidate Division OP3 LiM populations
|Other Titles:||Einblicke in die Biologie von Populationen der Kandidaten-Division OP3||Authors:||Kizina, Jana||Supervisor:||Harder, Jens||1. Expert:||Harder, Jens||2. Expert:||Amann, Rudolf||Abstract:||
The candidate division OP3, recently entitled candidate phylum Omnitrophica, is characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequences from a broad range of anoxic habitats with a broad phylogeny of up to 26% sequence dissimilarity. The 16S rRNA phylotype OP3 LiM had previously been detected in limonene-degrading, methanogenic enrichment cultures and represented small coccoid cells. Neither isolation experiments nor physiological experiments had provided insights into the metabolism of this bacterium within the complex methanogenic community. This doctoral thesis aimed at the characterization of populations of the phylotype OP3 LiM to discover its biology. Metagenomes usually yield draft population genomes. To obtain the complete closed OP3 LiM genome, in silico methods were explored to improve draft assemblies. Large genomes of planctomycete strains were assembled with a variety of methods. A taxonomic classification of contig sequences was used to differentiate and separate contigs of draft assemblies into taxon-specific groups. Reassemblies of reads obtaining from mapping onto taxon-specific contigs yielded improved draft assemblies. This knowledge was used to obtain a closed genome of OP3 LiM from a metagenome of physically enriched OP3 LiM cells. Finishing the OP3 LiM genome required the combination of data of different sequencing technologies, a variety of assembly and mapping software, over 15 reassemblies with intensive manual quality controls by read and contig mapping and, finally, laboratory work with combinatorial PCR to solve the genome puzzle. The population genome of OP3 LiM is the first closed genome of a member of candidate phylum Omnitrophica and comprises 1,974,501 bp with a GC content of 52.9%. Its 23S rRNA contains a group I intron. The genome offers a syntrophic life on hydrogen or formate, however, the metaproteome indicated that OP3 LiM uses glycolysis together with pyruvate oxidation as major catabolic pathway. The metaproteome also identified high levels of proteins potentially involved in the degradation of polymers as well as in the uptake of foreign nucleic acids. The genomic information was combined with observations of cells of the methanogenic community by different visualization methods. Images of OP3 LiM required electron microscopy due to the small cell size of 0.2a 0.3 AAmicrometre in diameter. In situ hybridizations revealed two physiological stages, free-living OP3 LiM cells with low ribosome content and OP3 LiM cells attached to either bacteria or archaea, which showed strong signals. This observation indicated a higher metabolic activity of OP3 LiM cells during the attachment and, likewise, that the bacterium utilizes surface polysaccharides as preferred substrate. In situ hybridizations revealed that the methanogen Methanosaeta in the enrichment culture contained cells in the filaments that lacked DNA and rRNA suggesting that these cells lost their cellular content. We also observed faint signals of the OP3 LiM 16S rRNA in Methanosaeta cells. The presence of the intron RNA of the 23S rRNA of OP3 LiM was visualized in Methanosaeta cells devoid of DNA and rRNA. This first direct observation of an intron transfer from a bacterium to an archaeon together with metaproteomic observations indicate the lifestyle of an epibiotic bacterium for OP3 LiM. OP3 LiM is the first predatory bacterium that preys on Archaea. We propose to name OP3 LiM a Candidatus Vampirococcus archaeovorusa .
|Keywords:||Omnitrophica, methanogenic enrichment, reassembly, predatory bacteria, mobile element, intron||Issue Date:||18-Sep-2017||URN:||urn:nbn:de:gbv:46-00106115-12||Institution:||Universität Bremen||Faculty:||FB2 Biologie/Chemie|
|Appears in Collections:||Dissertationen|
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