Embedded Sensors to Monitor Production of Composites : From Infusion to Curing of Resin
|Other Titles:||Eingebettete Sensoren zur Überwachung der Produktion von Composites : Von der Infusion bis zur Härtung von Harz||Authors:||Kahali Moghaddam, Maryam||Supervisor:||Lang, Walter||1. Expert:||Gräser, Axel||2. Expert:||Kempen, Ludger||Abstract:||
The need for using light-weight and high-strength fibre reinforced polymer in different applications has increased in the past few decades. The ideal product offers excellent mechanical and chemical properties with much lower weight compared to traditionally used metals. Initially, the fibre-reinforced polymers are being produced by trial and error iterations. This causes a very expensive product, with random quality and lack of reproducibility. There is a need to replace trial and error experiments with knowledge-based approaches. Using sensors for in-situ production to monitor the results in a reliable and repeatable way gives a high-quality composite product and optimizes the time and cost of the process. One of the common manufacturing processes of fibre-reinforced polymer composite is resin infusion in dry fabrics. The resin impregnates the fibrous textile through the existence of a pressure gradient in the fibrous mat, which is generated by a vacuum pump or by a resin injection at high pressure. The impregnation of the dry textile is a result of the pressure gradient between resin inlet and venting point in the mold. Therefore, the most relevant measurement to detect the resin front and the changes of resin hydrostatic pressure is measuring the pressure directly inside the laminate. In this study, pressure sensors provide real-time information about the resin front in laminate and the changes of resin hydrostatic pressure during the infusion. Different pressure sensors and interconnection techniques were examined to minimize the size of the sensing element in the composite. After complete impregnation of the fibres, the curing degree of the resin has to be measured. Microscale interdigital capacitive sensors with a perforated substrate of polyimide are designed and fabricated. The sensors are fabricated on polyimide substrate with a thickness of about 5 micrometers. The polyimide is thermally stable up to 450 degree celsius. Therefore, the sensor can be used for a variety of processes even with high-temperature curing requirements. They have a volume of around 0.1 mm3. The miniaturized dimensions of the sensor enables it to remain in the composite product with the negligible diminishing of mechanical properties. The metallization of the sensor is insulated with metal oxide built up from the metallization itself. This insulation layer enables measurement in electrically conductive carbon fibres. The sensors will remain inside the composite material for structural health monitoring during the life-time of composite. Ideally, the sensors for online process monitoring of composites should be made of the identical fibres or resin in that composite. This will eliminate the wound effect in the host material. To obtain sensorial material, a high-performance resin for aerospace application, type RTM6, is mixed with different plasticizers. The cured mixture of the resin is thin and flexible. An interdigital comb structure is screen-printed on the newly developed substrate. The curing degree of the RTM6 resin in glass and carbon fibres is measured by screen-printed planar interdigital sensor on flexible RTM6. Having sensors for online process monitoring is important for industry 4.0 to autonomously produce fibre reinforced composites in a so-called smart factory . Both, pressure sensors and interdigital capacitive sensors in this thesis can be used for online process monitoring. They will provide a knowledge-based approach for high-quality and low-cost products.
|Keywords:||Fiber reinforced polymer Composite Pressure sensor Resin flow Interdigital capacitive sensor Resin cure||Issue Date:||17-May-2017||URN:||urn:nbn:de:gbv:46-00105908-18||Institution:||Universität Bremen||Faculty:||FB1 Physik/Elektrotechnik|
|Appears in Collections:||Dissertationen|
checked on Sep 24, 2020
checked on Sep 24, 2020
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